Hypersonic MissilesMay 25, 2018
Hypersonic missiles are specifically designed for increased survivability against modern ballistic missile defense systems. These missiles are capable of delivering conventional or nuclear payloads at ultra-high velocities over long ranges. Hypersonic missiles are delivered in two ways: (1) they can be fired from the last stages of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) or Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBM) and skip along the top of the atmosphere using specialized jet engines to accelerate to hypersonic speeds; or (2) they can be launched independently or released from a bomber—similar to cruise missiles—before accelerating to ultra-high speeds.
In contrast to conventional Reentry Vehicles (RV) that travel at supersonic speeds (between Mach 1 and Mach 5), hypersonic weapons travel along the edge of space and accelerate to between Mach 5 (around 3,800 mph) and Mach 10 (over 7,500 mph). While conventional ballistic missiles are launched at steep trajectories that inhibit speed during the high friction of launch and reentry, hypersonic missiles glide atop the atmosphere while engaging specialized jet engines to perpetually accelerate up to hypersonic speeds.
This ability to travel at ultra-high velocity is the primary appeal of hypersonic missiles because it extends their range and allows them to bypass modern layered missile defenses.  Hypersonic missiles are also capable of maneuvering in flight, allowing them to evade missile defense tracking systems and interceptors. This is in contrast to conventional RVs, which descend through the atmosphere on a predictable ballistic trajectory that can be tracked and intercepted by modern missile defense systems.
Nations in Pursuit of Hypersonic Missile Technology
The United States, China, and Russia are designing and testing hypersonic missiles. The U.S. is pursuing hypersonic missiles to deliver conventional payloads, while China and Russia plan to equip hypersonic missiles with conventional as well as nuclear warheads.
The United States The United States has invested in research and development of a hypersonic missile called the Advanced Hypersonic Weapon (AHW), which uses boost glide technology to propel warheads with conventional—rather than nuclear—payloads. Hypersonic boost glide technology uses a different type of propulsion known as Supersonic Combustion Ramjet or “scramjet.” Scramjet engines take in the oxygen needed for the engine to combust from the air passing through the vehicle, rather than an onboard tank. This allows AHW to achieve hypersonic speeds by maintaining thrust while reducing the weight of fuel the missile must carry. During a test in 2011, AHW was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii, to the Reagan Test Site on the Marshall Islands. The glide vehicle successfully struck a target that was located 3,700 km away, demonstrating the long-range and high precision of the AHW. 
Lockheed Martin is developing a hypersonic vehicle called the Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2 (HTV-2), which is a maneuverable rocket-launched aircraft that glides through the Earth’s atmosphere at speeds up to Mach 20 (13,000 mph).  Equipped with numerous sensors to collect data while the vehicle is in hypersonic flight, the HTV-2 is representative of a U.S. initiative to research and develop technologies that make long-duration hypersonic flight a reality. The United States plans to use the HTV-2 and AHW for “Prompt Global Strike,” which would allow the U.S. to launch a conventional hypersonic strike against targets anywhere on the planet in less than one hour.
China: Since 2014, China has carried out several tests of its Hypersonic Glide Vehicle (HGV) called the DF-ZF. The DF-ZF is launched during the last stage of a missile and can reach nearly 7,500 mph (Mach10), as well as maneuver to avoid missile defenses and zero in on targets. This weapon can be configured to carry a nuclear or conventional warhead and China claims it is precise enough to attack ships at sea. The DF-ZF is scheduled to be operational as early as 2020. 
Russia: Russia has been designing and testing various hypersonic glide vehicles (HGV) and hypersonic cruise missiles. Avangard, a hypersonic glider previously known as ‘Project 4202’ or ‘Yu-71’, has been tested multiple times since February 2015. It can reach speeds of Mach 20 (~15,000 MPH) and is capable of sharp high speed evasive maneuvers in flight. In March 2018, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that the testing of the weapon was complete and that it had entered series production. It’s set to become operational in late 2018 or early 2019, nearly five years ahead of schedule.
As a part of a joint venture with India, Russia has also been working on its BrahMos-II hypersonic cruise missile. Testing on the missile has only recently started, with the first test flights planned for 2020. When it enters service with the Russian and Indian Armed Forces, likely in 2025, BrahMos-II will be one of the world’s fastest hypersonic cruise missile, reaching speeds of Mach 7 (~5,000 MPH).
The 3M22 Zircon is a maneuvering anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile being developed in Russia. Its latest successful launch was in June 2017, where it was reported that it had reached Mach 8 (~6,000 MPH). The original 3M22 Zircon has a range of 620 miles, but there are plans to build an export version with a shorter range in compliance with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The missile will be incorporated into the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov in 2018 and the Pyotr Velikiy in 2022. Production of the 3M22 is set to begin late 2018 at the earliest.
A second Russian hypersonic cruise missile in development is the KH-47M2 Kinzhal. The Kinzhal missile, a modified version of the surface-launched Iskander rocket, can reportedly travel as fast as Mach 10 over a distance as great as 1,200 miles, all while maneuvering. Kinzhal is designed to counter US missile defense systems like THAAD and heavily defended US aircraft carriers. It was revealed to the world in March 2018. As of May 5, 2018 ten MiG-31 fighter jets have been fitted with Kinzhal missiles and are on test combat duty. According to Russian Deputy Defense Minister Yuri Borisov, the Kinzhal outfitted jets are ready for use depending on the situation.
- Threat Basics
- Today’s Missile Threat
- North Korea
- China’s Anti-Access Area Denial
- Russia’s Anti-Access Area Denial
- Non-State Actors
- Missile Proliferation Index by State
- Changjian-20 (CJ-20)
- Dong Feng-11 (CSS-7)
- Dong Feng-12 (CSS-X-15)
- Dong Feng-15 (CSS-6)
- Dong Feng-16 (CSS-11)
- Dong Feng-21 (CSS-5)
- Dong Feng-21D (CSS-5)
- Dong Feng-3 (CSS-2)
- Dong Feng-31 (CSS-10)
- Dong Feng-4 (CSS-3)
- Dong Feng-5 (DF-5)
- M-7 (8610)/CSS-8
- Dong Feng-41(CSS-X-10)
- Dong Feng-26
- DH-10 / CJ-10
- 3M-14 Kalibr (SS-N-30A)
- 3M-54 Klub (SS-N-27 Sizzler)
- AS-15 Kent (Kh-55 Granat)
- KH-35 (SS-N-25 Switchblade)
- OTR-21 Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)
- P-1000 Vulkan
- P-120 Malakhit (SS-N-9 Siren)
- P-15 Termit (SS-N-2 Styx)
- P-500 Bazalt (SS-N-12 Sandbox)
- P-800 Oniks (SS-N-26 Strobile)
- R-17 Elbrus (SS-1 Scud-B)
- R-17 VTO/SS-1e (Scud-D)
- R-29R / SS-N-18 Stingray
- R-29RM / SS-N-23
- RK-55 Relief (SS-N-21 Sampson)
- RS-12M Topol (SS-25 Sickle)
- RS-28 Sarmat (Satan 2)
- SS-1 Scud-A
- SS-18 Satan/R-36M2 Voyevoda
- SS-19 Stiletto
- SS-1d Scud-C
- SS-27 / Topol-M
- SS-27 Mod 2 / RS-24 Yars
- SS-N-30 Bulava
- Iskander-M (SS-26)
- Notable Missile Tests
- Combat Launches
- Future Ballistic Missile Technology