In 1964, Greece and several other NATO countries signed the “Multilateral Agreement” for use and operation of the NATO Missile Firing Installation (NAMFI) at Crete, Greece’s largest island. The agreement established Greece as one of NATO’s leaders in air and missile defense, a status that the country maintains today, and Greece is one of only five NATO nations with deployed Patriot air and missile defense systems.
In commitment to NATO’s integrated air and missile defense, Greece has acquired a diverse range of air and missile defense capabilities, which provide the country a malleable defense against various threats.
Greece’s Ballistic Missile Defense Capabilities
|MIM-104 Patriot/PAC-2 (GEM-T)||Greece||Six batteries||Short-range terminal ballistic missile defense|
|S-300P||Greece||Unknown||Short-range terminal ballistic missile defense|
Greece’s Air Defense Capabilities
|MIM-104 Patriot/PAC-2 (GEM-T)||Medium- to long-range air defense||Six batteries||Ground-Based; Road-Mobile|
|ESSM||Medium-range air defense||Deployed on four Hydra-class frigates||Hydra-class frigates|
|Sea Sparrow Missile||Short-range air defense||Deployed on nine Elli-class frigates||Elli-class frigates|
|Phalanx CIWS||Short-range air defense||Deployed on four Hydra-class frigates and nine Elli-class frigates||Hydra-class and Elli-class frigates|
|S-300||Long-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based; Road-Mobile|
|9K33 Osa (SA-8 Gecko)||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based; Road-Mobile|
|Tor-M1||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based; Road-Mobile|
|Rheinmetall Twin AA Gun MK-20||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based|
|VELOS||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based; Road-Mobile|
|Crotale||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based; Road-Mobile|
|FIM-92 Stinger||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Man-Portable|
|Artemis 30||Short-range air defense||Unknown||Ground-Based|
Today, NAMFI, under the administrative control of Greece’s Hellenic National Defense General Staff, is used by Germany, Greece, and the Netherlands to conduct live firings with air and missile defense platforms. Conducted under realistic tactical scenarios, these live firings increase operational confidence in the systems and improve the interoperability of NATO’s air and missile defense infrastructure.