The geostrategic position of the Republic of Korea (ROK/South Korea) is difficult given its proximity to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK/North Korea), which may be fast approaching ballistic missile program readiness – as well as developing a weapons of mass destruction program.
The Republic of Korea is to a great extent dependent on U.S. security guarantees. In recent years, it has relied on the United Nations Security Council to help reign in the dictatorship to the North. China has recently urged North Korea to disengage in the programs alleged to be building ballistic missiles capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.
South Korea elected not to join the US-led global missile defense system but has in the meantime developed a defense entity similar to the Missile Defense Agency in the United States and the Missile Defence Centre from the United Kingdom.
Republic of Korea’s Ballistic Missile Defense Capabilities
|Patriot/PAC-2||Republic of Korea||Eight batteries|
The Republic of Korea has hosted missile defense systems since the United States stationed the 1st Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery in the ROK in 1994 in response to North Korea’s threats to suspend the armistice on the Korean Peninsula.
In 2006, the Republic of Korea announced it would create its own indigenous missile defense system, the Korean Air and Missile Defense System (KAMD). The KAMD is outside of the U.S. led regional ballistic missile defense system and came in response to North Korea’s first nuclear test.
In May 2007, the ROK Navy launched the Sejong the Great (DDG 991) its first Aegis-equipped guided missile destroyer.[i]It was followed by the Yulgok Yi I (DDG 992) in November 2008 and the Seoae Ryu Seong-ryong (DDG 993) in June 2011. The Sejong the Great-class destroyer, equipped with SM-2 air defense interceptor, is not currently BMD-capable. All three ships were jointly produced by Lockheed Martin and South Korea’s Hyundai Heavy Industries. In 2013, the ROKN began to argue for an additional 3 KDX III Aegis Destroyers, called KDX III Batch 2 to counter North Koreas aggressive development of additional ballistic missiles. 10 December 2013 the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff approved the procurement of these additional Aegis Destroyers. The ships will join operational forces in 2023-2026. In May 2016, the ROKN announced that the Batch II ships would be equipped with both SM3 eco-atmoshperic and SM6 multi-purpose ends-atmosperhic missiles to support BMD missions. https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/rok/kdx-3-ii.htm
The ROK announced it would speed up completion of its KAMD system and open its Air and Missile Defense Cell (AMD-Cell) in July 2013. The AMD-Cell is a command and control center for the KAMD enterprise. The ROK also announced plans to upgrade its three Aegis equipped destroyers with SM-6 surface-to-air missile by 2016. The AMD-Cell was opened following North Korea’s missile and nuclear tests in December 2012 and February 2013, which spurred the ROK to increase defense funding.
Republic of Korea’s Air Defense Capabilities
|MIM-104 Patriot/PAC-2||Medium- to long-range air defense (PAC-2 GEM/T interceptors)||Eight batteries||Road-mobile|
|SM-2/Aegis Combat System||Long-range air defense||Deployed on three vessels||Sejong the Great-class destroyers (3)|
|ESSM/Aegis Combat System||Medium-range air defense||Deployed on three vessels||Sejong the Great-class destroyers (3)|
|Chunma (K-SAM)||Short-range air defense||Over 100||Ground-mobile|
|KM-SAM (Cheolmai-2)||Medium-range air defense||Unknown||Road-mobile|
|Chiron Missile System||Short-Range Air Defense||Over 2000||Man-Portable|
|Mistral Missile System||Short-Range Air Defense||Unknown||Man-Portable|
In April 2014, the Republic of Korea’s arms procurement agency approved a $1.3 billion plan to upgrade its PAC-2 air defense system and buy PAC-3 missiles by 2020.[ii]In November 2015, the ROK announced it will complement its seaborne SM-2 with an indigenously designed and constructed system, the Korean Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile system (K-SAAM).
Due to the rising threat from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the ROK has expressed interest in ballistic missile defense systems. It is interested in research and development of different missile defense related technologies from the U.S. and other countries, such as Israel. The United States has become increasingly involved in in the defense of South Korea and is aware of the threat North Korea could present to the West, moving battleships with missile defense technology towards Guam and other areas in the Pacific.
In July 2016, the United States and South Korea agreed to deploy a U.S. THAAD missile defense system (and corresponding AN/TPY-2 radar) in South Korea.[iii]This decision came in response to North Korea’s provocative actions throughout the year, conducting two nuclear tests and tens of missile tests and demonstrating significant progress for the country’s nuclear and ballistic missile programs. Deployment of THAAD on the Peninsula is meant to mitigate the missile threat from North Korea and marks the first time a U.S. THAAD system will be deployed outside of U.S. territory.
Lockheed Martin, in July 2017, was awarded a $130.3 million foreign military sales contract for PAC-3 anti-ballistic missile systems.[iv]The contract will provide for 35 missile segment enhancements, 100 launcher modifications kits, parts, software, and missile round trainers. Recipients include Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan.
Amid the rising tensions with North Korea, South Korea installed the remaining launchers for the US anti-missile THAAD system on a former golf course in the south in September 2017. Two launchers had already been deployed.[v]
South Korea is developing the Korean Air and Missile Defense (KAMD) system, which encompasses an integrated mix of short range (Patriot PAC-2/3), medium range (M-SAM), and long range (L-SAM) missile defense systems with early warning Aegis based targeting radar technology. The KAMD has its own early warning, command and control, and intercept systems that are all fully integrated. This has been an ongoing project since 2006. [vi]
U.S. Forces Korea and the South Korean military jointly fire one U.S. missile and seven South Korean missiles into the Sea of Japan in a demonstration of the countries’ ability to “respond quickly to crisis events”.