India

Date Last Updated: November 30, 2021

Background

As a member of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, or the Quad, the strategic dialogue between the United States, India, Japan and Australia, India’s missile defense policy is of great importance to U.S. defense policy in Asia.

In 2002 when President George W. Bush took the U.S. out of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, India was the first state to publicly support the President’s decision, and shortly followed suit with the construction of its own missile defense system. India’s security environment present’s the country with several challenges, including sharing borders with its nuclear armed historical rivals, Pakistan and China. Pakistan lies to the Northwest of India, and since establishing its independence in 1947, the two states have gone to war four times. The last of those wars, the Kargil War in 1999, occurred when both states had nuclear weapons, and the prospect for nuclear escalation was high. The specter of the Kargil War was a primary driver for India to develop its first missile defense systems in November 2006. The Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) was designed for high altitude targets and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) was designed for low altitude targets. In addition to the threat posed by Pakistan, China’s modernizing A2/AD capabilities have also been driving Indian missile defense development due to China’s ballistic and cruise missile arsenal being capable of striking targets on the Indian mainland.

India’s missile defense program began in 1996 when it acquired technology from Israel to build a Long-Range Tracking Radar (LRTR), also called the Swordfish, and is capable of picking up enemy missile launches up to 300 km in range. In 2006, India tested its first interceptor capabilities with the PAD and AAD systems, and in 2009 tested its first ship-launched interceptor, the Dhanush. The Indian government has divided their missile defense program into two phases. The government announced that Phase 1, which entails intercepting endo-atmospheric targets, was completed in April 2019, and has begun Phase 2, the interception of atmospheric targets, with its testing Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) which is reported to have intercepted a missile at a 100 km altitude. While Phase 1 was designed primarily to defend against Pakistan, Phase 2 has been geared towards defense against China, and India is also working on an “integrated phase” that uses Phase 1 and Phase 2 missiles together.

Capabilities

In November 2012, India demonstrated it possesses the capability to intercept multiple missiles with the launch of the 5,000-kilometer-range Agni-5. At India’s Wheeler Island test range in February 2017, it tested the Prithvi Defense Vehicle” (PDV), its latest high-altitude interceptor similar to the U.S. THAAD system. Both the PDV and its lower tier counterpart, the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) intercept incoming missiles in the terminal phase and use an explosive warhead to destroy its target as opposed to the hit-to-kill technology used by most U.S. systems. In terms of radar capabilities, India has acquired three Green Pine radar systems from the Israelite Arrow missile defense system, an active electronically scanned array (AESA) solid state radar that operates at L band with a range of 500 MHz to 2,000 MHz. The Swordfish Long-Range Tracking Radar is a derivative of the Green pine and is capable of detecting targets at ranges of up to 500 km and can track more than 30 targets at speeds over 3,000 meters per second.

SystemRoleNumber DeployedPlatform
Prithvi Air DefenceExo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile75 interceptorsBEML-Tatra TEL 8 × 8
Advanced Air DefenceEndo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile75 interceptorsBEML-Tatra TEL 8 × 8
Long-Range Tracking Radar (Swordfish)Long Range Tracking Radar2 facilitiesTransportable multi-mode solid state active electronically scanned array
Prithvi Defence VehicleExo-atmospheric interceptor missileN/ABEML-Tatra TEL 8 × 8

Current Developments

In October 2016, India agreed to purchase five Triumf S-400 missile defense systems from Russia, instead of purchasing the Patriot Pac 3 from the U.S. The S-400 is a Russian, mobile, surface-to-air missile (SAM) system first deployed in April 2007. With an operational range of 400 km, the S-400 is one of the most advanced air-defense systems to be deployed, equipped with a 91N6E panoramic radar detection system that has protection against radar jamming and can track up to 100 incoming targets.

India’s purchase of the S-400 has been received negatively in the U.S. The Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), imposed sanctions on Russia in response to Russia’s invasion of Crimea and military presence in Syria. As India’s purchase of the S-400 would benefit Russia economically while it is still being sanctioned, the U.S. has accused India of helping Russia to circumvent CAATSA. The U.S. has responded by threatening sanctions against India, although no official decision has been made.

In November 2021, India began receiving supplies for the S-400 from Russia. While the Biden administration has not made an official decision to sanction India over the purchase, the Trump administration did apply similar sanctions to U.S. ally Turkey in 2017, also over the S-400. The decision to sanction Turkey has had significant effects on military-to-military relations, including the cancellation of further sales of the U.S. F-35 to Turkey and the prohibition of Turkish pilots to train on the F-35. India is a member of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, the Asian security initiative between the U.S., India, Japan, and Australia. Applying sanctions on India in response to the purchase of the S-400 may negatively impact broader U.S./India relations, including efforts to establish a security initiative against China.

Recent News

India and China Expected to Buy Russia’s New S-500 Missile Defense System

S-400 Missile: Why Is India Deploying Powerful Air Defense System Near Pakistan Border & Not Against China?

References

https://www.armscontrol.org/act/2013-01/news/indian-missile-defense-program-advances

https://carnegieendowment.org/2016/06/30/india-and-ballistic-missile-defense-furthering-defensive-deterrent-pub-63966

https://uploads.fas.org/media/Strategic-Implications-of-India%E2%80%99s-Ballistic-Missile-Defense.pdf

https://thediplomat.com/2020/01/report-indias-homemade-anti-ballistic-missile-shield-ready/