Type 93

Quick Facts

Variants Type 91
Role and Mobility Surface-to-Air Missile Defense System; Road-Mobile
Interceptors and Range

Type 91 Missile

Speed: Mach 1.9

Range: N/A


Infrared Guidance System

Image Guidance System

Targets Low-Altitude Aircraft,
Status/Exports Operational; None
Designer/Producer Toshiba Heavy Industries


The Type 93 Air Defense System is a surface-to-air missile used by the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force. It is the vehicle-borne version of the Type 91 Air Defense System.[i] Also known as Closed Arrow, the Type 93 closely resembles the United States Military’s Avenger.[ii] It was first deployed in 1993 as a replacement for the L-90 35mm Anti-Aircraft Twin Cannons in service.[iii]

Strategic Implications

Strategically, the Type 93 is a vast improvement over its predecessor, the L-90, as it has the ability to track and shoot down enemy aircraft using its infrared homing capabilities. Using its 3rd generation-made infrared and ultraviolet guidance systems, it can record the target’s image profile and ignore defense countermeasures like flares. These capabilities would make it important during conflict, because it maximizes the chance of hitting the target and not a decoy.[iv]


1993: Type 93 Air Defense System was first deployed in JGSDF service

1991: Toshiba Heavy Industries began designing the Type 93 system[v]

Recent News


    [i] https://www.onwar.com/weapons/rocket/missiles/Type-93-Surface-to-air-missile.html

    [ii] http://rightwing.sakura.ne.jp/equipment/jgsdf/firearms/type93sam/type93sam.html

    [iii] https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Type+93+surface-to-air+missile&uid=1575

    [iv] Ibid.

    [v] https://www.onwar.com/weapons/rocket/missiles/Type-93-Surface-to-air-missile.html