U.S. Deployed Sensor Systems
Sensors and Missile Defense
An effective layered defense incorporates a wide-range of sensors to detect and track threat missiles through all phases of their trajectory. Satellites and a family of land-and sea-based radars provide worldwide sensor coverage.
Army/Navy Joint Electronics Type Designation System/AN/SPY-1 Radar is critical for the U.S. Navy’s aerial radar infrastructure and is a key component of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System at sea and on land. U.S. Navy cruisers and destroyers employ SPY-1—in addition to a number of foreign vessels—for Aegis Sea-Based BMD, while on land, the radar system is utilized by Aegis Ashore missile defense sites. Developed by Lockheed Martin, SPY-1 radar was originally designed as an air defense system, but has been upgraded to include a ballistic missile defense (BMD) capability.
Click here to learn more about AN/SPY-1.
The Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance and Control, or AN/TPY-2, is a transportable X-band, high-resolution, phased-array radar designed specifically for ballistic missile defense. The AN/TPY-2 is capable of tracking all classes of ballistic missiles and identifying small objects at long distances. In the forward-based mode, this radar plays a vital role in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) by acting as a forward based sensor for the system, detecting ballistic missiles early in their flight and providing precise tracking information for use by the system.
Click here to learn more about AN/TYP-2.
The U.S. Air Force operates the Cobra Dane Radar at Eareckson Air Station on Shemya Island, Alaska. It is a stationary radar that provides midcourse coverage for the United States ballistic missile defense (BMD) system, primarily working with the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system in defense of the U.S. homeland from long-range ballistic missile threats. The Cobra Dane is a long-range phased array radar that can detect objects 2,000 miles away. The radar has a 95-foot diameter and stands 120 foot tall.
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The Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites provide early warning for Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) and tactical launches. This once classified satellite, now known as DSP, was first launched in 1970 and became the first of many to be launched over the next 37 years. DSP satellites use infrared sensors to detect heat from missile and booster plumes against the Earth’s background in support of the missile early warning and missile defense mission areas.
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SBIRS is designed to provide global, persistent, infrared surveillance capabilities including missile Warning and missile defense. SBIRS will provide reliable, unambiguous, timely and accurate warning for theater and strategic missile launches. The system will also deliver critical information supporting the effective operation of missile defense systems against national and theater threats.
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The Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar acquires, tracks and discriminates the flight characteristics of ballistic missiles. The SBX provides an advanced capability to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS), increasing the Missile Defense Agency’s ability to conduct operational and realistic testing of the BMDS, while providing an operational capability to the Combatant Commands.
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The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) operates the Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrators (STSS-D). STSS-D constellation consists of two satellites orbiting at 1350 km, 58 degree inclination, with 120 minute orbital period. Using sensors capable of detecting visible and infrared light, STSS-D serves as the experimental space layer of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS).
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Three Air Force Early Warning Radars (UEWR), located in Beale, Calif.; Fylingdales, United Kingdom; and Thule, Greenland, were upgraded and integrated into the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The upgrades modernized the hardware and software to improve midcourse BMDS sensor coverage by providing critical early warning, tracking, object classification and cueing data. All three UEWRs will transfer to the U.S. Air Force for sustainment in FY13. The Early Warning Radar in Clear, Alaska began the UEWR modernization in FY12. The Cape Cod Early Warning Radar upgrade is currently an unexercised option on the Clear upgrade contract.
Click here to learn more about UEWR.
- U.S. Missile Defense
- U.S. Deployed Intercept Systems
- Aegis Ashore
- Aegis Sea-Based BMD
- Ground-Based Midcourse Defense
- Patriot Missile Defense System
- Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)
- Avenger Air Defense System
- Counter-Rocket, Artillery, Mortar (C-RAM)
- SeaRAM Anti-Ship Missile Defense System
- U.S. Deployed Sensor Systems
- Command and Control
- U.S. Missile Defense Policy
- U.S. MDA Funding
- U.S. Deployed Intercept Systems
- Missile Defense of U.S. Parnters
- U.S. Partners in Missile Defense
- Allied Intercept Systems
- Allied Sensor Systems
- Other BMD Systems
- Missile Defense Intercept Test Record
- Operational Intercepts by System
- Future BMD Systems
- Boost Phase Missile Defense
- Directed Energy
- Electromagnetic Railgun
- Hyper-Velocity Powder Gun
- LPD Based Ballistic Missile Defense Ship
- Long Range Discrimination Radar (LRDR)
- Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS)
- Multi-Mission Launcher (MML)
- Multi-Object Kill Vehicle (MOKV)
- Space-based Kill Assessment (SKA) Experiment
- Discontinued Programs