Facts

North Korean/U.S. Designation KN-02/Toska/Doska/OTY-21 Tochka
Missile Variants N/A
Mobility and Role Road mobile/Surface to surface Short Range Ballistic Missile
Designer/Producer Modeled from Russia OTR-21 Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)
Range 120-170km
Warhead Type and Weight Conventional or Nuclear/250-485kg
MIRV and Yield No MIRV capability / N/A
Guidance System/Accuracy Inertial/160m CEP
Stages/Propellant Single/Solid
IOC 2006
Status/Number of Units 100 missiles

Development

The KN-02 missile is a short-ranged, solid-fueled ballistic missile with a range of 120-170km. [1]   The KN-02 is apparently based on the Tochka or SS-21 Scarab missile. [2] The North Korean military reversed engineered technology from the Scarab to create the KN-02. [3] This was partially expedited by the Syrian government in the mid-1990s. [4] Syrian engineers and technicians visited North Korea for two weeks, and during this time period, these engineers provided information about the SS-21 as well as solid fuel source knowledge. [5] The KN-02 is believed to be the most accurate of North Korea’s missiles.  The KN-02 is purported to have a Circular Error Probable of 160ms, meaning the warhead should impact within a radius of 160ms of its target. [6] The missile is believed to carry sub-munitions or possibly chemical warheads. [7]  It is also road mobile allowing it to be deployed anywhere in North Korean territory, and is believed to have a short firing cycle of around 20 minutes. [8]  While the original Russian design, the SS-21, is guided by a global positioning system the North Korean reversed engineered KN-02, is limited to an internal inertial guidance system. [9]  This means that the KN-02 uses purely mechanical gyroscopes to keep track of the missiles position, velocity, and orientation. [10]The KN-02 was first revealed on August 25th , 2007. [11] It is suspected that the KN-02 was tested twice, unsuccessfully in April 2005 and then successfully the following month. [12]

Strategic implications

The KN-02’s capabilities are likely suited for attacking targets such as airports, bridges, and command posts. [13] It also has the ability to accurately target troop concentrations. KN-02s accuracy drops at longer ranges, but stilll has the ability to target some cities, like Seoul, in South Korea. [14] It is also believed that North Korea has a large number of KN-02 missiles.   The KN-02 is listed as an exception to North Korea’s inaccuracy with missiles. For this reason, the KN-02 missile could also be deployed in a support role for troops on the battlefield. [16]

Missile Tests

Click here to see a list of the KN-02 tests.


Sources

[1] Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat,” Air Force ISR Agency, 2013, accessed June 17, 2014,http://www.afisr.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123355694 .

[2] Daniel Pinkston, “The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program,” Strategic Studies Institute, accessed June 17, 2014, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub842.pdf .

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[5] Ibid

[6] “Kn-02 Ballistic Missile,” Military Today, accessed June 17, 2014,  http://www.military-today.com/missiles/kn_02.htm .

[7] Ibid.

[8] Kim Eun-jung, “N. Korea Has 100 Kn-02 Missiles with Extended Range,” Yonhap News Agency, May 3, 2014, accessed June 18, 2014,  http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/news/2014/03/05/99/0200000000AEN20140305002300315F.html?76518000 .

[9] Daniel Pinkston, “The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program,” Strategic Studies Institute, accessed June 17, 2014, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub842.pdf .

[10] Oliver Woodman, “An Introduction to Inertial Navigation,” University Cambridge: Computer Labratory, August, 2007, accessed July 1, 2014,  http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/techreports/UCAM-CL-TR-696.pdf .

[11] Daniel Pinkston, “The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program,” Strategic Studies Institute, accessed June 17, 2014, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub842.pdf .

[12] Ibid.

[13] Daniel Pinkston, “The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program,” Strategic Studies Institute, accessed June 17, 2014, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub842.pdf .

[14] Ibid

[15] Kim Eun-jung, “N. Korea Has 100 Kn-02 Missiles with Extended Range,” Yonhap News Agency, May 3, 2014, accessed June 18, 2014,  http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/news/2014/03/05/99/0200000000AEN20140305002300315F.html?76518000 .

[16] Daniel Pinkston, “The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program,” Strategic Studies Institute, accessed June 17, 2014, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub842.pdf .

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