JL-1January 2016 By Kristin Horitski
|Mobility and Role||Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile|
|Designer/Producer||People’s Republic of China|
|Warhead Type and Weight||Nuclear or Conventional/600kg|
|MIRV and Yield||No MIRV capability/200-300kt|
|Guidance System/Accuracy||Inertial/300-400m CEP|
|IOC/Retirement||1988/Still in service|
|Status/Number of Units||Operational/12 missiles “est”|
The JL-1 is China’s first submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with a range of 1,700- 2,150 km and carrying a single 200-500 kT nuclear warhead.  China’s Type 092/Xia-class nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) carries up to 12 JL-1 missiles. The Xia-class is China’s first SSBN and was launched in 1981, commissioned in 1987 and successfully launched its first SLBM in 1988. 
It is not believed that the Xia-class submarine has ever left Chinese coastal waters due to vulnerabilities related to slow speed, a noisy engine, and an unreliable reactor.  The Xia-class underwent a refit from 1995-2000, but it remained vulnerable to antisubmarine warfare platforms.  The Xia-class was replaced by Jin-class submarines launched in the 2004-2012 timeframe. With the Xia-class SSBN being removed from service, it is believed only about 15-20 JL-1 missiles remain. 
 “Chinese Ballistic Missile Models.” Nuclear Threat Initiative. July 8, 2015. http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/chinese-ballistic-missile-models/#JL1.
 “Xia Class.” Military-Today. http://www.military-today.com/navy/xia_class.htm.
 Lennox, Duncan. “JL-1/-21 (CSS-N-3).” Jane’s Strategic Weapon Systems. August 28, 2012.
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